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Environmental Pollution Fighting Oil Spill Dispersants

Oil Spill Dispersants

Oil Spill Dispersants

When any amount of crude oil is spilled in the sea water, that makes a serious environmental pollution is born and started, it must be fighted and removed immediately, effectively, easily and with a minimum impact on the environment. Of course all of us well known about this disaster, which we have one of its certified solutions and we have its required certifications.
One of the effective certified solutions for dealing with the spilled oils in the sea is disperse it in the sea water by using special dispersants, which are a group of mild chemicals specially designed to be sprayed onto oil slicks, to enhance and accelerate the process of natural dispersion and natural degradation.

Spraying dispersants may be the only mean of removing oil from the sea surface, particularly when mechanical recovery is not possible. It is used in intended to minimize the damage caused by floating oil, for example to birds, marine living creatures or sensitive shorelines.
We produce several types of oil spill dispersant, but the one which we are very proud in it, and the one that content the latest updated technology in this field, is D.G.S. 500 O,S&R the high performance oil spill dispersant. 
Because we all sharing in the same environment, so we will try to make the following information and materials are more educational and simple​​

Environmental Pollution Fighting

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Environmental Pollution Fighting How we describe the D.G.S. 500 O Oil Spill Dispersants S&R?

[1-A] – How we describe the D.G.S. 500 O,S&R?

How we describe the D.G.S. 500 O,S&R?

D.G.S. 500 O,S&R is a high performance water base oil spill dispersant, with a very low toxicity, in a new special formula. This new special formula doesn’t contain any hydrocarbon solvents, benzene, chlorinated solvents, aromatics, caustic alkalis, and free mineral acids. This new special formula is based on organic, non- toxic, non-corrosive, non-caustic, natural, and highly biodegradable compounds.

D.G.S. 500 O,S&R is a high concentrate product to be use as a type 2 as well as a type 3 dispersant for oil slick in sea water. It gives excellent stable dispersion to the oil by converting it in a physical action only (no chemical reaction) to very fine droplets, in order to accelerate natural physical and biological degradation processes, and to permit a good and natural oxygen exchange between air and water.

D.G.S. 500 O,S&R is a powerful degreasing & cleaning agent, that can be used safely to clean oil contaminated areas on beaches, rocky shores, harbor walls, decks, floors, drill cuttings and mechanical equipment’s.
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Applications and ratios of D.G.S. 500 O Environmental Pollution Fighting Oil Spill Dispersants S&R

[1-B] – Applications and ratios of D.G.S. 500 O,S&R

Applications and ratios of D.G.S. 500 O,S&R

[1-B] – Applications and ratios of D.G.S. 500 O,S&R

D.G.S. 500 O,S&R can be applied to open water by a variety of methods. In general workboats are more suitable for treating minor spills in harbors or confined waters. Large multi-engine planes are best equipped for handling large off-shore spills. Small, single-engine aircraft and helicopters are suitable for treating smaller spills and near shore areas. Regardless of the method used, it must be able to apply the D.G.S. 500 O,S&R effectively. In order to minimize losses due to wind drift, a uniform spray pattern of larger droplets, “rain drops”, are required rather than a fog or a mist.
The ratio of D.G.S. 500 O,S&R to the oil, depends on many factors which include type of oil, viscosity, degree of weathering, ambient temperature and prevailing conditions. Generally this ratio can be estimated for a slick that is dark brown black in color, 100 microns in thickness, in area of 10000 m2. This would represent a slick of 1 ton of oil (approx.), and would require about 70 liters of D.G.S. 500 O,S&R (undiluted) for the complete treatment and dispersion of the slick .

1) Marine Vessel Applications (type 2 / 3) 

Methods for D.G.S. 500 O,S&R application from sea going vessels include spraying through a set of nozzles fixed on outboard booms, and spraying from modified fire monitors. In a typical boom system, the booms are mounted as far forward as possible to ensure the D.G.S. 500 O,S&R is applied ahead of the bow wave which helps to mix the D.G.S. 500 O,S&R and oil. Spray units can be portable or permanently installed on a vessel. Systems are available that deliver neat D.G.S. 500 O,S&R or, with a separate water pump, apply D.G.S. 500 O,S&R diluted with water.

Vessel spraying is of limited utility as can only relatively small amounts of D.G.S. 500 O,S&R can be applied and because of the difficulties of locating the oil from a vessel. Furthermore, when slicks become fragmented or form narrow windrows, it is inevitable that some D.G.S. 500 O,S&R will be sprayed onto un-oiled sea. These problems can be partially overcome by controlling the operation from a spotter plane but this requires good air to sea communications.

D.G.S. 500 O,S&R can be sprayed in the undiluted mode (type 3), or for a better distribution in the diluted mode (type 2), from bow mounted spray booms in order to take advantage of the roll-over effect of the vessel’s bow wave. For best results, additional agitation is required by the use of the available methods (turbo-jet mixture, surface breaker boards or fire hoses).
The discharge rate for the D.G.S. 500 O,S&R in the vessel Applications, can be obtained from the following equation:

[Discharge Rate] is the consumption of the concentrate D.G.S. 500 O,S&R (as supplied), this consumption will be given by liters per minute (liters/min).
[Vessel speed] is the going speed of the spraying vessel, the speed should be stated by meter per minute (m/min) in the equation. To convert from “Knot” to “m/min”, use the following equation: Knot (kn) × 30.8866 = m/min
[Swathe width] is the sum total lengths measurement of the spraying arms/booms , this sum total should be stated be meter (m) in the equation, and it is to be metered starting from the vessel side to the end of each spraying arm/boom, and then take the lengths measurement sum 
Note: D.G.S. 500 O,S&R can be sprayed on to oil slick in concentrated mode (as supplied), or in mixed mode (being mixed with sea water when sprayed). In case of mixed mode, use the available mixing ratio in the site, but if available we advice to use the mixing ratio of 1 : 19 – 1 : 4 [dispersant : sea water], it is about 5 – 20% concentration of the dispersant in the total spraying solution (that is depending on the case and data).

2) Aerial Applications (type 3)

The spraying of D.G.S. 500 O,S&R from aircraft has the significant advantages of rapid response, good visibility, high treatment rates and optimum D.G.S. 500 O,S&R use. In addition, aircraft allow treatment of spills at greater distances from shore than with vessels.
Two categories of aircraft are used:

  • Those designed for agricultural or pest control operations which require minor modification for dispersant application.
  • Those which have been specifically adapted for the application of dispersant. Several types of helicopter have also been converted although most are able to carry under sling bucket spray systems without the need for modifications.

D.G.S. 500 O,S&R can be applied by a wide variety of rotary and fixed wing aircraft, particularly dedicated spray aircraft if these are available. It must be emphasized that due to aircraft speed atomization of the dispersant must be reduced by using a spray nozzle system that will give a large droplet size (700-1200 microns).

The discharge rate for the D.G.S. 500 O,S&R in the Aerial Application, can be obtained from the following equation:

3) On Beaches, Rocky Shores and Harbour Walls

D.G.S. 500 O,S&R can also be used on some shorelines, including beaches, rocks and sea walls, particularly during the final stages of clean-up.
The most appropriate application equipment depends on the type of shoreline substrate to be cleaned, the ease of access and the scale of the operation. For small inaccessible beaches and coves, portable back-pack sprayers are the most suitable. For large expanses of shoreline, purpose-built vehicles can be used.
Use

D.G.S. 500 O,S&R on the contaminated areas, using hot water jets, portable back sprays, or any dedicated beach cleaners (if these are not available use the available jet or manual methods).

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Advantages of D.G.S. 500 O Environmental Pollution Fighting Oil Spill Dispersants

[1-C] – Advantages of D.G.S. 500 O,S&R

Advantages of D.G.S. 500 O,S&R

D.G.S. 500 O,S&R was designed & manufactured in EGYPT to give several advantages

  • High performance, very low toxicity and highly biodegradable dispersant.
  • Completely safe product (water base), soluble in sea water.
  • Doesn’t contain any hydrocarbon solvents, benzene, chlorinated solvents, aromatics, caustic alkalis, and free mineral acids.
  • To be use as a type 2 as well as a type 3 dispersant, with a very strong spontaneous dispersing ability, even the slightest motion in water could be enough to disperse oil immediately & completely.
  • Enhance and accelerate natural physical and biological degradation for the dispersed oil.
  • Doesn’t attack or harm the micro organisms (specially the bacteria) which treat the dispersed oil by transfer it to proteins, release it to carbon & hydrogen (natural biodegradation process).
  • Prevent the formation of viscous oil emulsion (type “chocolate mousse”).
  • Reduce the oil / water interfacial tension, and inhibit dispersed oil to form slick again.
  • Doesn’t cause by any form a deposition for the spilled oil to the bottom of the sea.
  • Acting with the oil in a physical action only (no chemical reactions occur with the oil).
  • Enlarge oil interface which promotes the desired physical & biological degradation.
  • Prevent the contamination of spilled oil on ships, harbors, beaches, aquatic birds and living creatures.
  • Can be used to clean the contaminated areas on beaches, rocky shores, harbour walls, decks, floors, drill cuttings and mechanical equipment’s.

  • No agitating, disturbing, or unpleasant odor, and it is safe if accidentally contact with the humans skin.
  • Can be used by the available equipment’s (no special equipment’s required to apply).
  • No special precautions for storage, handling or using (only main chemical precautions to be taken).
  • Developed to meet all the requirements of warren spring laboratory specification LR 448 (OP).
  • Developed to meet all the requirements of the National Oil Spill Contingency Plan (NOSCP), under the control of the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA).

For the facility’s and the availability of the product in the emergency cases in Egypt, we can produce and supply the product in a very short time (A.S.A.P.), by a previous agreement, also we can keep in stock a stated quantities that can be collected when needed in hours (6 : 12 hours).

Note: our factory is located in the 10th of Ramadan city, which is in a middle location:

  • 95 minutes away from Suez (130 km from the Red Sea and the Suez Canal).
  • 55 minutes away from Ismailia city (75 km from the middle of the Suez Canal).
  • 120 minutes away from Portsaid city (160 km from the north of Suez Canal).
  • 95 minutes away from Ahmed Hamdy – tunnel (130 km from Sinai main junction).
  • 45 minutes away from Cairo city (60 km from the capital and national Air Port).
  • 170 minutes away from Alexandria city (230 km from the Mediterranean Sea)
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Environmental Pollution Fighting How dose D.G.S. 500 O Oil Spill Dispersants S&R work?

[1-D] – How dose D.G.S. 500 O,S&R work?

How does D.G.S. 500 O,S&R work?

The addition of D.G.S. 500 O,S&R is intended to accelerate the natural dispersion of the oil slick. The natural dispersion of the oil slick occurs slowly when waves and other turbulence at the sea surface cause all or part of the slick to break up into droplets and enter into the water column. This natural dispersion is not stabilized with out an strong and effective oil spill dispersant like D.G.S. 500 O,S&R

D.G.S. 500 O,S&R is a blend of a hi-technology specially designed surfactants which are molecules, and have an affinity for two distinct liquids which do not mix, acting as an interface between them. A part of the surfactant molecule used in D.G.S. 500 O,S&R has an attraction to oil (oleophilic), while another part has an attraction for water (hydrophilic), forming immediately spontaneous stable dispersion in a physical mode only (NO CHEMICAL REACTIONS OCCUR).

When D.G.S. 500 O,S&R is sprayed onto an oil slick, the interfacial tension between the oil and water is reduced, promoting the formation of finely dispersed oil droplets. These droplets will remain in suspension; a characteristic plume will spread down from the water surface a few seconds after treatment forming a staple dispersion in the sea water column, in approximately depth of “8” down to “12” meter.

It is very important to notes that the D.G.S. 500 O,S&R work in a physical action only, and never cause a chemical reaction with the spilled crude oil. Because any chemical reaction with the spilled crude oil will cause the changing of the chemical formulation for it, and that will cause that the new chemical formulation of the crude oil won’t degrade, because the marine microorganisms and bacteria won’t recognized it, or it could take mach more time to start a slowly degradation, which will harm the environment.

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Environmental Pollution Fighting Oil Spill Dispersants Where the D.G.S. 500 O

[1-E] – Where the D.G.S. 500 O,S&R with the dispersed oil go?

Where the D.G.S. 500 O,S&R with the dispersed oil go?

After the oil slick is break up to finely droplets, and this finely droplets is completely spread and dispersed in the sea water column (dispersant & oil mixture), in this step the natural physical and biological degradation process started, depending on the dissolved free biotical oxygen and the marine microorganisms and bacteria that transfer the dispersant & oil mixture to proteins, release it to carbon & hydrogen. So the mixture between the D.G.S. 500 O,S&R and the spilled oil (finely dispersed oil droplets”), naturally degrade and become environmentally friendly with no negative side effect to the media.

While the marine microorganisms and bacteria are very important to perform the natural degradation for oil droplets in the water column. So we where very careful when we designed D.G.S. 500 O,S&R that it should not content even any slightly toxic materials or any other materials that may harm, attack or eject any type of the marine microorganisms and bacteria.

Not only that; but also we did conceder very much that all the content of D.G.S. 500 O,S&R should be an aliment or food to the marine microorganisms and bacteria that can feed on it, the point of view that all of the content of D.G.S. 500 O,S&R are fast, highly and completely degradable in the marine environment by the marine microorganisms and bacteria.

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Environmental Pollution Fighting Oil Spill Dispersants S&R Characteristics Some of the D.G.S. 500 O

[1-F] – Some of the D.G.S. 500 O,S&R Characteristics

Some of the D.G.S. 500 O,S&R Characteristics

BaseWater base
Dispersant typeType 2/3
[ type 2 + type 3 ]
AppearanceGolden yellow to dark brown liquid
Odoracceptable, non-disturbing mild odor
[non-penetrating and non-agitating odor]
pH~ 5 : 7 (ą2)
[doesn’t content any mineral acids or free alkalis]
Density @ 23 oc~ 0.99 : 1.02 (ą 0.03) g/cm3
[ASTM D-4052]
Viscosity @ 40 oc~ 25 cSt
[modified ASTM D-445]
SolubilityCompletely fast soluble in sea water
DegradationHighly & completely biodegradable
ToxicityVery low toxicity to marine organisms
[LC50 >10000ppm]
FlammabilityNon-Flammable
Degradation of dispersed oilOil dispersed by D.G.S. 500 O,S&R is completely degradable after 144 hours (16.67percent/day) [according to the NIOF study]
Hydrocarbon solvents contentNon
[doesn’t content any hydrocarbon solvents]
Copper Corrosion test1A
[ASTM D-130]
Corrosive action on metalsNon corrosive
[safe on ferrous and non ferrous metals & alloys]
Damages to other surfacesNon
[safe on plastic, fiber, rubber, concrete, wood, etc.]
Dose average (concentrate)~ 1% : 10% of the oil by weight
[depending on variable factors]
Dilution~ 10 % with sea water at use
[for a type 2 application]
Safety and HandlingNon dangerous material, but main chemical precautions should be taken when handling or using
Packing~ 200 kg. on Steel or plastic drums